Clocks
Telling the Time

Age
6.7 + 
"3 o'clock"
"half
past 3"
"7
o'clock"
"half past 7"
"If we start at 3 o'clock, notice how the big hand
sweeps half way around the clock to make half
past 3."

Age
7.2 + 
"1
o'clock", "quarter past 1", "half
past 1", "quarter to 2"
"If we start at 1 o'clock, notice how the big hand sweeps a quarter
of the way around the clock to make quarter past
1."
"If the big hand sweeps round another quarter, then the time is
half past 1."
"If the big hand sweeps another quarter, then the time is a
quarter to two, because it is a quarter of the clock before
2 o'clock."

Age
7.6 + 
"5
past 10", "10 past 10",
"15 past 10", "20 past 10"
"Each little blip is just 1 minute. So, you can count exactly how
many minutes it is past (after) 10 o'clock."
"Notice how 15 (minutes) past 10 is the same as a 'quarter past
10'."

Age
7.8 + 
"25
to 4", "20
to 4", "15 to
4",
"10 to 4"
"Each little blip is just 1 minute. So, you can count exactly how
many minutes it is to (before) 4 o'clock."
"Notice how 15 minutes to 4 is the same as 'a quarter to 4'."

Age
8.5 + 
The pupil should be able to read (and draw) all clock times,
understanding all the terms such as 'half past', 'quarter to', '20 past'
etc.
It is now also time to make sure that the pupil can, in fact, readily
identify each minute of the clock, and so, for example, can
identify a time of 5.47, or 3.09.
If the previous sections have been mastered, this should not require
much practice.

Age
9.5 + 
24 Hour Clock
The following graphics represent what pupils
aged 9.5 and above should now understand about
time.

Age
10.8 + 
Pupils can find it mathematically very useful to think of times that go
beyond 23:59.
EXAMPLE: If the time is now 22:30, what time will it be in
3 hours and
50 min?
METHOD 1: "22:30 + 3h 50m =
25:80; and by subtracting 24h as we
switch to a new day, this gives a time of 01:80. And a time of
01:80 is
equivalent to a time of 02:20."
However, this approach should not be used unless the pupil has already mastered
the art of moving forwards and backwards in time.
METHOD 2: If the pupil has not already mastered
the art of moving forwards and backwards in time, then this problem should
be done by moving forward in time, step by step. Thus, ...
"If the time is now 22:30, then in 3h time it will be ... 23:30,
00:30, 01:30." (counting with fingers if necessary)
"Now we have to add another 50 min ... > 01:40, 01:50,
02:00, 02:10, 02:20."

Also see Working
in Columns 1.


